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Showing posts from February, 2019

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)

PCOS is an endocrine and metabolic disorder. It is considered in any woman with acne, hirsutism, menstrual irregularity, or obesity. Patients with PCOS, have anovulation, i.e. they may not produce a follicle cyclically. They may therefore present with primary amenorrhea (i.e. no periods at all), too few periods (oligomenorrhea) or secondary amenorrhea i.e. absence of periods for six months or more. Some may also have excessive, frequent and irregular bleeding (dysfunctional uterine bleeding). Resistance to insulin, and increase in insulin levels is an important factor in PCOS. Obesity is present in approximately one-half of patients with PCOS. The waist:hip ratio may be greater than 0.85. The cause of PCOS is unknown, but there is a possibility that PCOS may be a complex genetic disorder in which the genetic factor interacts with various environmental factors and causes imbalance in the hormones. The diagnosis of PCOS is based upon clinical and biochemical criteria. It is suspected i…

OVARIAN CYST

The ovaries are part of the female reproductive system. They’re located in the lower abdomen on both sides of the uterus. Women have two ovaries that produce eggs as well as the hormones estrogen and progesterone. Sometimes, a fluid-filled sac called a cyst will develop on one of the ovaries. Many women will develop at least one cyst during their lifetime. In most cases, cysts are painless and cause no symptoms.
Types of ovarian cysts There are various types of ovarian cysts, such as dermoid cysts and endometrioma cysts. However, functional cysts are the most common type. The two types of functional cysts include follicle and corpus luteum cysts.
Follicle cyst During a woman’s menstrual cycle, an egg grows in a sac called a follicle. This sac is located inside the ovaries. In most cases, this follicle or sac breaks open and releases an egg. But if the follicle doesn’t break open, the fluid inside the follicle can form a cyst on the ovary.
Corpus luteum cysts Follicle sacs typically diss…